Glossary

Wine and Beer Making Glossary
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

ACID BLEND
A mixture of fruit acids (tartaric, malic and citric). Add to grape and fruit musts before fermentation to balance the acidity. See Vinacid for more details
ACIDITY
Perceived in the taste of the wine as a level of tartness, acidity is a naturally component consisting of mainly tartaric acid, at about 0.5 to 0.7 percent of the wine by volume.
AERATE
Exposing the wine to oxygen either through decanting or allowing the wine to “breathe” in an opened bottle or glass. Thought to allow off-odours to dissipate in older wines, and to soften aromas in younger ones.
AGING
A complex series of slow chemical reactions occur when wine is aging in the carboy and the bottle. These chemical reactions combine components in the wine to produce new flavours, particularly after the wine is bottled. For red wines particularly, long bottle aging will result in fine sediment as the tannins slowly interact with other compounds to form soft flavours.
AIRLOCK & RUBBER STOPPER
Together they form a one-way valve that seals the carboy at the neck. It prevents oxygen and spoilage organisms from entering while allowing fermentation gases to escape.
ALCOHOL
The by product of fermentation wherein the yeast metabolizes sugar in roughly equal parts of carbon dioxide and ethanol.
AMERICAN OAK
Oak wood for wine barrels sourced in American forests. Favoured by many winemakers, particularly those in Australia and Spain.
ANTHOCYANS
Natural organic chemical compounds responsible for the red, blue and purple colours of grapes and wine. Include anthocyanins, anthocyanidins and pro-anthocyanidins.
AOC
Short for Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (sometimes Appellation Contrôlée abbreviated as AC). Translates literally to protected place name, and is the official French category for higher-ranking wines. AOC wines are categorised according to name, origin, grape varieties and other legal definitions.
APPELLATION
Official name referring to a wine’s geographic region of origin.
AROMA
The smell of a wine. Some people use the term aroma for younger wines; bouquet for those that have been aged.
AROMATIC
Used to refer to a wine, particularly white wines, with intensely floral or fruity aromas, such as Muscat or Viognier.
ASTRINGENT
Caused by tannin, refers to the mouth-puckering character of some wines.
ATTACK
In wine tasting, the first impression of a wine on the mouth. Usually perceived as a first “hit” on the tip of the tongue and at the front of mouth.
AVA
Acronym for American Viticultural Area, indicating wine-growing regions as defined through geographic and climatic boundaries by the Federal Government. Theoretically, the American version of the French AOC system.

B

BALANCE
The relationship of the components of the wine including alcohol, residual sugar, acid and tannin. When no one component stands out against the rest, the wine is said to be well balanced, an indication of quality.
BARREL
A small wooden barrel used for ageing red wine, and fermenting some styles of white wine. Most barrels are about 227 litres (50 gallons) in size, and are made of oak, primarily from French and American forests.
BARREL-AGED
Refers to wines that are fermented in containers such as stainless steel, then placed in oak barrels to mature. Also refers to wines that are fermented in the barrel.
BARREL-FERMENTED
Some white wines, notably Chardonnay, may be fermented in barrels rather than in stainless steel to impart a subtle oak character.
BARRIQUE
Small French oak barrel
BENTONITE
A clearing agent made from natural clay, widely used in commercial wineries because of its low cost and its ability to remove proteins and iron compounds in white wines. High amounts will cause flavour loss in wine. Not recommended for red wines as it will remove colour.
BIG
Used to describe wines that are very full and intense; considered the opposite of elegant.
BLACK FRUITS
Aromas and flavours found typically in red wines including those of blackberries, black currants, blueberries and black cherries.
BLACK GRAPES
Grapes with reddish or blue pigment in their skins used to make red wine
BLEND
To assemble individual lots of wine together to make one wine. Can apply to different grape varieties, or grapes of the same type from different vineyards, regions and vintages.
BODY
The tactile impression of wine in your mouth. Think in terms of light, medium and full–or skim milk, whole milk and cream!
BORDEAUX BLEND
A style of wine assembled from the classic red grapes of Bordeaux including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petit Verdot.
BOTTLE SICKNESS
Newly bottled wine contains relatively large amounts of oxygen. The wine needs some time regain its equilibrium and to become palatable. This ‘sickness’ normally displays as a lacklustre nose, flat taste and generally dull character compared to the wine that was tasted in bulk just before bottling. It usually disappears after a few weeks but may be present for a few months.
BOTTLE-AGING
The winemaker decides how long a wine will age in the bottle before it is released for sale. Many wines are made to be consumed upon release; finer wines, particularly reds, may require additional bottle ageing by the consumer. In the case of Champagne and sparkling wine, bottle ageing allows the wine to acquire, complexity, depth and fine texture; it is also known as ageing “on the yeast” or “en tirage”.
BOUQUET
The more developed and complex aromas said to be evident in older and mature wines.
BRIGHT
A wine descriptor referring the character of the wine, including its appearance in the glass, to be fresh and exciting, and refracting light.
BRIX
Scale of measurement of total dissolved compounds in grape juice and approximate concentration of sugars used in the United States as one gauge of ripeness at harvest. One degree Brix is approximately 12-g/l sugar.
BRUT
Champagne style that is very dry, meaning little or no residual sugar
BUNG
Barrel stopper made of glass, plastic, rubber, silicone or other material which seals the bung-hole in the barrel like a cork. Can be removed to permit topping up or racking. The position of the bunghole can be changed to maximise or reduce aeration.
BUTTERY
Descriptor often applicable to Chardonnay that has undergone malolactic fermentation; describes both texture and flavour attributes.

C

CARBOY
A bottle-shaped container made of glass or plastic. Available in various sizes, the most popular being 23 litres (6 US gallons), 19 litres (5 US gallons) and 12 litres (2. US gallons). Glass is preffered in winemaking because it is easy to clean and sanitize and provides a barrier to oxygen which will damage wine. It is vital that the is kept topped up to the neck to eliminate air during the aging process.
CASTELLO
The Italian word for castle; refers to a wine estate, such as Castello d’Albola.
CEDARY
A woody aroma that characterises certain red varietals
CHAMPAGNE
Refers to sparkling wines made from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France and vinified using the Méthode Champenoise winemaking process. Term is sometimes used to refer to sparkling wines from different regions, but correctly, only sparkling wine from Champagne may be called Champagne.
CHARRY
Aromas and flavours of a toasty nature created by the application of oak barrel ageing to the wine.
CHATEAU
A French winery estate, typically found in Bordeaux and the Loire Valley, the architecture of châteaux can range from grand to mundane.
CHITOSAN
This is a naturally charged polysaccharide derived from chitin, extracted from the outer shells of ocean crustaceans. When combined with Kieselsol, Chitosan will clarify wine in a short time and is syphoned away from the clear wine as part of the sediment. Chitosan has no allergenic properties.
CHLORICLEAN
Pink chlorinated detergent that will both clean and sanitize equipment. Make up a fresh solution each time consisting of 3 tablespoons to 4 litres of water. Chloriclean solution should be in contact with equipment for at least 30 seconds for best results. Be sure to rinse with lots of warm water at least 3 times to remove all traces of the solution. Failure to do so will kill wine yeast and will ruin flavour of wine.
CLARO KC
This is a two-part liquid fining, originated by Wine Kitz, that is absolutely the most remarkable fining product on the market today. Claro KC will clear most wines in as little as 24 hours to a brilliant finish. Removes only suspended material in the wine and settles to a nice firm sediment that is easy to rack off. Best to let the wine settle for about one week before racking. Available in packs to clear 5 gallons.
CLASSICO
Italian term indicating that wine comes from the heart of a specific region. While Chianti Classico is a demarcated DOCG district, the Classico for Verdicchio, for example, refers to the central part of the appellation.
CLEANING
Cleaning is the physical action of removing visible residue from equipment.
CLONE
A selection within a grape variety, which exhibits certain characteristics distinct from others in the group. Viticulturists and winemakers experiment with different clones of the same variety to optimise their plantings and provide specific flavour and tactile characteristics.
COLHEITA
Term used in Port winemaking referring to vintage.
COMMUNE
Typically refers to a wine-growing village in the Burgundy region of France.
COMPACT
Wine described as intense but not full.
COMPLEX
Opposite of simple. A wine that has a lot going on.
CONCENTRATED
Dense aromas and flavours.
CONCENTRATION
What wines with dense aromas and flavours evidence (as opposed to weak and watery).
COOPERAGE
Collective term for wooden containers; also used to refer to the activities and workplace of coopers, who make and repair small barrels and large wooden vats.
CREAMY
Wines, particularly barrel-fermented Chardonnay that has undergone a secondary, malolactic fermentation, that have a rich, smooth mouth-feel and are fuller in body are often characterised as creamy.
CRISP
Describes wines that are clean, and possibly a bit on the tart side. Opposite of soft. Wines that are crisp are typically higher in acid, and go well with food.
CUVEE
A blend of many lots of still wines, particularly Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier, designed to become a well-balanced Champagne or sparkling wine.

D

DECANT
To transfer wine from the bottle into another container, to aerate or to separate a red wine from its sediment
DEMI-SEC
A Champagne style that is semi-dry, but sweeter than sec
DEPTH
The impression of many layers of complexity in a fine wine.
DISGORGING
The process by which the sediment collected in the neck of the Champagne bottle during the riddling process is frozen and expelled prior to the final corking.
DISTRICT
Refers to a geographic area more specific than region, but less specific than commune.
DO
Abbreviation for Denominacion de Origen, which means place name and refers to Spain’s official category for wines whose name, region of origin, variety and other defining factors are regulated by law.
DOC
Abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata, which means controlled place name. Italy’s official category for wines whose name, region of origin, variety and other defining factors are regulated by law. In Portugal, DOC is also an abbreviation for the highest official wine category, Denominacao de Origem Controlada.
DOCG
Abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita , meaning controlled and guaranteed place. Italy’s official category for its highest ranking wines.
DOMAINE
French term for wine estate, commonly used in Burgundy.
DOSAGE
The liqueur, or sugar dissolved in reserve wine, added to the Champagne just before final corking. The dosage finishes the Champagnes and determines its level of sweetness.
DOUX
A Champagne style that is sweet.
DRY
Refers to a wine that is not sweet. Can also mean a wine that feels rough or dry in the mouth.
DULL
Opposite of bright and clean; can refer to a wine’s appearance, aromas and flavours or overall style.

E

EARTHY
Refers to aromas and flavours that suggest wet or dry earth or minerals.
ELEGANCE
Suggests a wine of a certain delicacy and grace as opposed to power and intensity.
ESTATE
A property that grows grapes and makes wine from its own vineyards.
EXTRA-SEC
A Champagne style that is extra dry, but sweeter than Brut.

F

FERMENTATION
A naturally occurring process by which the action of yeast converts sugar in grape juice into alcohol, and the juice becomes wine.
FINING
Clearing the wine through the addition of products such as Claro KC (kieselsol/chitosan, bentonite, sparkolloid, gelatine, isinglass, egg whites). In winemaking, the cloudy wine is composed of extremely small solids that are negatively charged. Positively charged finings are added and quickly attract the negative solids to form larger clumps that fall to the bottom of the container. It is advisable to wait for at least 10 days to allow the finings to form a compact sediment that can be easily racked.
FINISH
The final impression of the wine in the mouth after swallowing, particularly in terms of length and persistence of flavour.
FIRM
Describes a wine neither soft nor harsh in reference to tannins in a red wine and acidity in a white.
FLABBY
Describes wines that are too soft.
FLAVOUR COMPOUNDS
Organic compounds in grapes responsible for many of the aromas and flavours in wine.
FLAVOUR INTENSITY
How strongly wine flavours are perceived.
FLAVOURS
The aromatic components of wine that define its varietal characteristics as noted in the mouth.
FLESHY
Wines so described have a rich texture and mouth-feel.
FLOATING THERMOMETER
Use this to take the temperature of the grape juice prior to addition of wine yeast. The optimal temperature range for fermentation is 20 – 24 Celcius (68 – 75 Farenheit).
FORTIFIED WINE
Wines such as Port to which alcohol has been added.
FRENCH OAK
Considered by many to be the finest oak for the ageing of white wines; also used for reds.
FRUIT CHARACTER
The characteristics of the wine has derived from the fruit, including aromas, flavours, tannins, acidity and extract.
FRUITY
The fruit aromas and flavours evident in wine. Can be fresh, dried, cooked; examples include fresh apples, dried figs, and strawberry jam.

G

GELATINE
Used mainly for red wine, Gelatine removes roughly its own weight in tannin from the wine, which can be undesirable in certain varieties. Not recommended for white wine. Widely used for clearing beer.
GRAPE TANNIN
Tannins in a red wine attributed to the grapes as opposed to winemaking methods.
GRAPE VARIETY
Type of grape, such as Chardonnay or Merlot.

H

HARMONIOUS
Referring to a pleasant and graceful balance of components in a wine.
HEATING BELT
This is a low wattage device that wraps around the plastic primary to raise the temperature of the fermenting must. If the ambient temperature of the room is above 66 F (19 C), do not use a heat belt as the use may actually heat the fermenting must to a level that will weaken or kill the wine yeast.
HERBAL
Aromas and flavours in wine that suggest those of herbs.
HYDROMETER
A hydrometer measures specific gravity (S.G.) and is very useful for monitoring the progress of fermentation. You should take a hydrometer reading at each step and record the S.G.. To calculate the alcohol produced, here is a simple equation: Take the starting Specific Gravity before fermentation and subtract the final SG. Divide the difference by 7.2 to find the alcohol by volume. If the SG of the finished wine drops below 1.000, use the 1.000 as the final SG. Example: Starting SG: 1.098 Final SG .996. Total drop in SG is 98. Divide by 7.2 = 13.61% alcohol by volume.

I

IGT
Indicazione Geografica Tipica. A category of wines created in Italy by Wine Law 164 in 1992 to approximate the French Vin de Pays and German Landwein.
INTENSE
Used to describe wines that express their character powerfully.
ISINGLASS
A gelatin produced from the air bladder of fish. Used to clarify wine.

L

LEES
The grape solids and spent yeast cells that fall to the bottom of a white wine after fermentation.
LENGTH
The sustained impression of a wine across the tongue.

M

MACERATION
The process of soaking the skins of red grapes in their juice to extract colour, tannins and other substances into the wine; can occur pre or post fermentation.
MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION
A natural, secondary fermentation, optional in the winemaking process, which softens the total acidity of the wine through the conversion of malic into lactic acid.
MATURATION
The process by which a wine reaches a point of readiness for bottling; can continue in the bottle.
METHODE CHAMPENOISE
The traditional French Champagne winemaking method used for producing sparkling wine.
METHODE TRADITIONELLE
The equivalent of the traditional French Champagne process know as Méthode Champenoise, but applied to the making of sparkling wines outside the Champagne region.
MINERALLY
Used to describe flavours and aromas that suggest minerals, such as flint, steel, chalk etc.
MOUSSE
The ring of light foam at the top of a glass of sparkling wine.

N

NEW OAK
Can refer to brand new barrels, or barrels that have been used from one to four years previously.
NEW WORLD
Winemaking countries such as Australia, New Zealand, USA, South Africa, Chile, Argentina, Canada etc. outside of Western Europe.
NON-VINTAGE
Refers to those Champagnes whose Cuvée contains wine from a previous vintage.
NUTTY
Broad descriptor to describe aromas and flavours of nuts in a wine; more specifically hazelnut, almonds, roasted nuts etc.

O

OAKY
The aroma and flavour characteristics imparted to a wine through the use of oak barrel fermentation and/or ageing. These may be characterised as vanilla, caramel, butterscotch, toast, smoke or char. Sometimes associated with imparting a higher tanning level than the wine might ordinarily have.
OFF-DRY
Term for wines that are neither fully sweet not dry.
OLD OAK
Barrels old enough to have lost much of its woody character. Generally five year or older.
OLD VINES
Term referring to vines that are generally 40 years or older. Presumed to deliver small yields, but good quality.
OLD WORLD
Refers to the winemaking countries of Western Europe including France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Germany.

P

PALATE
Referring to the mouth, or how a wine’s characteristics manifest themselves in the mouth
PECTIC ENZYME
Breaks down the naturally occurring pectin in fruit such as apples, peaches and Labrusca variety grapes. Add to the must prior to fermentation. Pectic Enzyme is heat sensitive and has a normal shelf life of about 1 year (keep in the refrigerator for up to two years) so don’t mix it with hot water and don’t use old stock. Can also be added to grapes at crushing to increase yield.
PETROL
Aromas or flavours reminiscent of gasoline, classic in European versions of Gewürztraminer and Riesling.
PHYLLOXERA
A parasite that feeds on the roots of vitis vinifera grapes, resulting in decline and premature death.
PLUMMY
Aromas and flavours that suggest ripe plums.
PLUSH
Describes a wine that feels luxurious in the mouth.
POTASSIUM METABISULPHITE
Potassium metabisulphite is a common wine or must additive, in which it forms sulfur dioxide gas (SO2). This both prevents most wild microorganisms from growing, and it acts as a potent antioxidant, protecting both the color and delicate flavors of wine. It is also used to sanitize winemaking equipment by spraying a 1% SO2 (2 tsp potassium metabisulphite per L) solution on all surfaces of the equipment that will be in contact with the wine.
POTASSIUM SORBATE
Also known as “wine stabilizer”, potassium sorbate produces sorbic acid when added to wine. It serves two purposes. When active fermentation has ceased, potassium sorbate will render any surviving yeast incapable of multiplying. Yeast living at that moment can continue fermenting any residual sugar into CO2 and alcohol, but when they die no new yeast will be present to cause future fermentation. When a wine is sweetened before bottling, potassium sorbate will prevent refermentation in sweetened wines when used in conjunction with potassium metabisulfite.
POWERFUL
Describes a wine of intensity and strength.
PRETTY
Describes a wine of delicacy and finesse.
PRIMARY AROMAS
Fresh fruit aromas suggestive of the wine varietal.
PRIMARY FERMENTER
Food-grade plastic container, with a cover. Should be at least 30% larger than your juice volume. For example, 23 litres of juice will require a container of at least 30 litres.
PUNT
The dome-shaped indentation in the bottom of a wine bottle.

R

RACKING
Transferring wine from one container to another through gravity using a syphon hose and syphon rod, leaving the sediment behind. Racking helps to clear and age the wine.
RED GRAPES
Also called black grapes, with skins that have reddish or blue pigment in their skins.
REGION
Geographical area for wine growing less specific than a district; more specific than a state or country.
RESERVE
Loose designation for presumably higher quality than “standard” version of the wine. In the case of Champagne, reserve wine refers to wine from previous vintages added to the cuvée for consistent quality and style.
RESIDUAL SUGAR
Remaining sugar in wine after fermentation
RIDDLING
The art of turning and tilting bottles of sparkling wine in order to ease the sediment into the neck of the bottle. Often performed mechanically in modern facilities.
RISERVA / RESERVA
Italian/Spanish term for “reserve” indicating longer ageing before release and suggesting higher quality. Regulations determine how long this is for individual wines.
ROSE
In still wine or Champagne, a slightly pink tint comes from contact with the grape skins or the addition of a small portion of red wine to the cuvée.
ROUND
As opposed to flat or angular, refers to a wine’s structure, particularly acid, tannin, sweetness and alcohol.

S

SANTIZING
Disinfecting equipment to prevent spoilage. Sanitizing infers that the equipment is spotlessly clean first. Pink chlorinated detergent (Chloriclean) is recommended for both cleaning and sanitizing.
SEC
A Champagne style that is dry, but sweeter than extra-sec.
SECOND-LABEL WINE
A less expensive or second brand made from grapes or wine a level down from primary label
SEDIMENT
Residue in the bottom of a bottle of red wine that forms as the wine ages.
SERIOUS
Describes a high-quality wine.
SILKY
Refers to a smooth, supple texture.
SINGLE-VINEYARD WINE
Wine made from the (presumably) good grapes of a single plot of land and not blended with any other grapes.
SKIN CONTACT
The pre-fermentation period in which the grape juice rests in contact with the skins of the grapes. Used in red winemaking to enhance colours and texture; may be used briefly in white winemaking to enhance aromas.
SMOKY
Aromas and flavours suggesting smoke or smoked wood imparted by oak barrel fermentation or ageing.
SMOOTH
Describes a wine that is not rough or harsh.
SOFT
Wine lacking in hardness or roughness, and present when alcohol and sugar dominate acidity and tannin.
SPARKLING WINES
Refers to all effervescent wines outside those from the Champagne region of France, vinified the Méthode Champenoise (correctly known elsewhere are Méthode Traditionelle).
SPARKOLLOID
Good all-round fining for red and white wines. Sparkolloid must be boiled for at least 3 minutes in water or wine prior to addition. Sediment is quite loose so care must be taken when racking. Allow the wine to clear for 14 days before racking. Filtering is mandatory because this fining agent will probably drop a light precipitation in the bottle if you don’t.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (S.G.)
Measurement of the density of your juice in relation to water. Used for tracking the progress of fermentation (as sugar is replaced by alcohhol, the wine becomes less dense, giving a lower reading on the hydrometer). Potential alcohol can be calculated from the starting s.g
SPOON
Food-grade plastic, approximately 70 cm (28 in.) long. Avoid wooden spoons as they can contain unwanted micro-organisms.
STEMMY
Red wines with green or stalky tannins.
STEMS
Woody part of the grape bunch that is high in tannin. Usually removed and discarded before fermentation.
STONEY
Aromas or flavours that suggest the mineral quality of stones.
STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
A wine’s alcohol, tannin, acid and sugar (if any).
STRUCTURE
How a wine’s structural components are perceived. Ideally structure should be well-balanced, without any one component dominant.
STYLE
Characteristics that form the personality of the wine.
SUPPLE
Describes a wine that is fluid in texture in the mouth, without roughness or harshness
SWEETNESS
The impression of a sugary taste in a wine. Can be due to the presence of residual sugar or other sweet-tasting substances such as alcohol.
SYPHON HOSE & SYPHON ROD
5 ft of food-grade tubing attached to a rigid acrylic rod. Used for transferring wine from one container to another while leaving sediment behind.

T

TANNIC
Describes wines too high in tannin
TANNIN
A substance found in the skins, stems and seeds of grapes (grape tannins) and imparted by oak barrels (wood tannins), that, in balance, can lend structure, texture and ageability to red wines.
TARRY
Aromas and flavours that suggest fresh tar.
TART
A term that can be applied to wines that are too high in acid, or made from under-ripe grapes.
TASTE
The impressions formed by wine in the mouth, perceived as bitter, sweet and sour.
TEMPERATURE
The best range for wine fermentation is 68 – 73 F
TERROIR
French term referring to the growing conditions in the vineyard, including climate, soil, elevation, slope, drainage, topography etc.
TEXTURE
How a wine feels in the mouth.
TIGHT
Can refer to a certain lean or underdeveloped quality of the wine in its aromas, flavour or structure.
TIRAGE
The process of bottling a cuvée with the addition of active yeast and sugar in order to induce a second fermentation. The carbonation produced by this second fermentation is trapped in the bottle, producing the effervescence of Champagnes and sparkling wines.
TOPPING UP
The process by which evaporated wine is replaced in the barrel.

V

VARIETAL
Term for grape variety.
VARIETAL CHARACTER
The unmistakable set of sensory characteristics attributable to a grape variety.
VEGETAL
Aromas or flavours that suggest vegetables.
VIN DE PAYS
French phrase for country wine. Lower status than AOC.
VINIFICATION
The activity of making grape juice into wine.
VINTAGE
The year in which a wine’s grapes were harvested; sometimes referring to the grape harvest itself. Vintage designations are only given to Champagnes whose cuvées contain wines made from a single year’s harvest. As with Port, a Champagne vintage is only declared in a year of exceptional quality.
VITICULTURE
The activity of growing grapes.
VITIS VINIFERA
Species to which most of the worlds wine grapes belong.

W

WEIGHT
Impression of heft and volume of the wine in the mouth.
WELL-BALANCED
Used to describe wines in which all component–alcohol, acid, tannin (if any) and sugar (if any)–relate to each other in such a way that none seems dominant.
WINE BOTTLES, CORKS, CORKER
For every 23 litres of wine you will need thirty, 750 mL bottles, thirty corks and a corker.
WINE THIEF
Used for removing samples from the carboy in order to measure specific gravity (S.G.). Lower thief into carboy and allow to fill. Remove thief from carboy, float hydrometer in liquid. Give the hydrometer a spin to dis-lodge any bubbles that may effect the reading.
WOOD TANNIN
Describes tannins attributable to barrel ageing, rather than the grapes.

Y

YEAST
One-celled organisms responsible for turning grape juice into wine.